The Problem Of Plastics Pollution
By James Donahue
The plastics industry has become a major part of our lives
since World War II. This synthetic material, a by-product of crude oil, appears in everything from women's nylons to golf
clubs and the bodies of our cars.
Most of the computer I am using to write this story is comprised
of plastic, as is the fabric of the office chair on which I sit, and the material in the carpet under my feet.
Plastic can be made to resemble almost anything. It has
been developed to have the strength of iron, and thus is used in the manufacture of more and more automobile parts.
The downside: Plastic has been a relatively inexpensive
product to make so it is used for packaging soft drinks, food products, fast foods, drinking straws and a variety of other
throw-away items that litter the sides of our roads.
It is used in making garbage, laundry and shopping bags
and packaging wrappers that end up in our landfills. Many of the other discarded plastic products that quickly outwear the
usefulness show up as part of the refuse placed inside the plastic garbage bags.
It is only recently that a type of plastic has been created
that will decompose. Most existing plastic does not break down or rot so it has an indefinite life span. Thus all of the plastic
products in existence and still being manufactured will be mixed in the soil or oceans of this planet thousands of years from
Ships at sea toss garbage bags and plastic products overboard.
It is believed that garbage scows carrying refuse from major cities also have been, and may still be disposing of their loads
in the world's oceans.
Recent studies have shown about 3,500 particles of plastic
per square kilometer in the sea off the southern African coast. In fact, surveys of 50 South African beaches from the Eastern
Cape to Cape Town show an increase in plastic pollution of 190 percent between 1985 and 1989. Plastic rubbish is found in
the oceans all over the world, including the Antarctic regions.
The Sea Education Association recently published a report
of a research study that involved dragging mesh nets behind a vessel and gathering the debris floating at the surface of various
parts of the North Atlantic. The association reports a maximum “plastic density” of 200,000 pieces of debris per
Another report said the "plastic rubbish found on beaches
near urban areas tends to originate from use on land." This includes packaging material used to wrap other products. In the
more remote areas, the pollution seems to be coming from passing ships.
The problem of rubbish from ships became acute enough that
Congress in 1987 passed the Marine Plastic Pollution Research and Control Act that bars ships from dumping rubbish within
25 nautical miles of land.
But the act only applies to ships in United States territory,
and has no effect on vessels traveling in the rest of the world.
While it is floating around in the seas, plastics appear
to be breaking down into tiny microscopic particles and man-made fibers that can now be found everywhere in the world, a study
by scientists at the University of Plymouth in the UK discovered.
"Even remote and apparently pristine layers of sand and
mud are now composed partly of this microscopic rubbish, broken down from discarded waste," the report in the journal Science
The report said most samples contain a range of plastics
or polymers that include nylon, polyester and acrylic. The team also found that creatures that feed on contaminated plankton
have plastics inside their bodies. Thus humans who eat sea life are also consuming plastic particles.
The long-range effects of this pollution are not yet known,
the report said.
The larger particles of plastic are found to be a threat
to marine life. For example, turtles are particularly affected by plastic pollution. They get entangled in (plastic) fishing
nets and many have been found dead with plastic bags in their stomachs. It is believed that they mistake these floating semi-transparent
bags for jellyfish, then die from choking or being unable to eat.
One report said an estimated 100,000 marine mammals die
each year in the world's oceans by eating or getting entangled in plastic rubbish. Many seals and other mammals get caught
up in large plastic objects and drown or die from exhaustion or starvation.
Birds, and especially marine bird species are found to be
eating and dying from consuming plastic particles. A study of blue petrel chicks at South Africa's remote Marion Island found
that 90 percent of them had plastic in their stomachs. The plastic was apparently fed to them accidentally by their parents.
Plastic bags are reportedly a major external cause of marine
engine damage. The bags get sucked into and plug the engine cooling systems. Other plastic material foul propellers and get
tangled in fishing tackle.
Plastic cups, dishes and especially liquid containers used
for storing drinking water, soft drinks and baby bottles are found to leach chemical compounds that are believed to be affecting
human health and sterility.
Some plastics used in simulating wooden paneling, flooring
and carpeting leach formaldehyde, a known carcinogen. That “new car” smell in automobile interiors comes from
the plastic upholstery, dashboards, steering wheels and other plastic parts.
Unfortunately, as our overpopulated world runs short of natural
materials with which to build homes and cars, industry is turning to more and more plastic to supply world needs.