Great Chinese Philosopher Confucius
By James Donahue
The teachings of Confucius, who lived about 500 years before
Christ, have probably had more influence on the world than those of Christianity. It is said that all world religions and
all governments are still influenced by the ideas taught in his school and by his books.
Like Jesus, Confucius never claimed personal divinity. Yet
a form of a philosophical belief system called Confucianism grew from his work. Also like Jesus, Confucius was said to have
been born into poverty, became a teacher of philosophy and principles of living, and had a band of followers, or disciples,
that remained by his side.
He was born in 551 B.C. into the family of K’ung and
given the personal name of Ch’iu, thus his real name was K’ung Ch’iu. Later, after earning fame as a teacher
and gaining political power, he was called “Master Kung” or K’ung Fu-tzu. From this name springs the Latin
translation that has stuck with us: Confucius.
Details about the real life of Confucius are sketchy.
Confucius lived most of his life in the country of Lu, now
a part of the Nation of China, although it is said that he traveled extensively and was well educated because he was allowed
to study with some of the masters of his day. He reportedly studied ritual under the Daoist Master Law Dan, music under Chang
Hong, and the lute with Music Master Xiang.
He was appointed Minister of Public Works and later Minister
of Crime under the rule of Duke King of Lu, but later was forced out of office for political reasons. Confucius then spent
the remainder of his life operating a school of philosophy and writing books.
His involvement with music and the fact that Confucius spent
a portion of his life in political office appears to have a heavy influence on his teachings.
Books have been written by Chinese historians about Confucius,
but many contemporary historians doubt their authenticity.
Like the Gospel accounts of the life of Jesus, the historical
record of this philosopher’s life is found in a few surviving books written long after his death. Most of what we know
about Confucius is found in Records of the Grand Historian, a collection of accounts authored by the Han dynasty court historian
Sima Qian in about 145 B.C., or 300 years after Confucius died.
Not only did Sima Qian not personally know Confucius, his
work was believed to have been an effort to enhance a myth around many of the historical figures within the dynasty.
That a man named K’ung Ch’iu existed, taught
and recorded a philosophy about life and government in his books, however, appears to be true.
Confucius taught a concept called jen, or humaneness that
included humanity, benevolence, goodness and virtue as a way of life. His message was that mankind must reach a state of personal
virtue to achieve orderliness and peace.
He wrote extensively about the importance of music and dance
as a pattern for establishing and following ritual. Confucius believed that ritual was a key part of every society.
Confucius taught that people live their lives within parameters
established by both a supreme being and by nature. He revered and respected the spirits that exist around us.
His social philosophy paralleled the Golden Rule, and revolved
around the concept of love for others. He taught his students to cultivate and practice concern for others to a point where
speech patterns and actions are not offensive. Those who cultivate jen are “simple in manner and slow of speech,”
that is they think out their words carefully before they are spoken aloud.
“What you do not wish for yourself, do not do to others,”
was among the sayings of Confucius. Also he said men are responsible for their actions and especially for their treatment
Learning self-restraint, he believed, involved studying
and mastering a ritual of forms and rules of propriety used by the society in which we live. He thought of loving others as
a calling and a mission for which one should follow to the death.
Confucius carried these principles into his political life,
and taught that good governments must live by them. He believed a ruler should learn self-discipline, should govern his subjects
by his own example, and treat all with love and concern.
“If the people be led by laws, and uniformity among
them be taught by punishments, they will try to escape punishment and have no sense of shame,” he said. “If they
are led by virtue, and uniformity sought among them through the practice of ritual propriety, they will possess a sense of
shame and come to you of their own accord.”
All individuals have a social role to play, and they should
attempt to be as good in that role as possible. He said: “Good government consists of the ruler being a ruler, the minister
being a minister, the father being a father, and the son being a son.”
In other words, if we claim for ourselves a title and participate
in the hierarchical relationships established by society, then we must live up to the standards of that title.
Understanding Confucius may help us understand the cultural
differences that exist between the Far Eastern societies and those of the West. People throughout China and other Far Eastern
countries are still strongly influenced by the standards set by this great philosopher.