Why Birds Fly In "V" Formation
In my native state of Michigan the sight and sounds of the Canadian Geese in flight during their natural
migrations are sure harbingers of both spring and winter. These large birds, sometimes flying low over our community, looking
for a place to rest and eat, were always honking and squawking as if in constant communication with one another, and always
following a leader in near perfect "V" formation.
That geese flew in formation was always known, although nobody in our town knew why. It was a mystery
of nature that we seemed to take for granted. There was always a theory that the birds somehow found easier flying by staying
in the "slipstream" of the bird ahead, but it was never proved.
The Canadian Geese are not the only birds that fly in formation during the long migrations. For us, they
were noticeable because of their large size and the noise they made.
A recent story by BBC News writer Helen Briggs noted that a French research team, studying the flight of
great white pelicans, especially trained to fly behind an aircraft for a film, may have confirmed our suspicions.
Scientists from the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Villiers en Bois, France, taped heart
monitors to the birds' backs.
Briggs wrote that the researchers found that when the pelicans flew in formation, their heart rates were
lower than when they were flying solo. The birds also spent more time gliding.
"They fly in formation to save energy," team leader Henri Weimerskirch said. "It's not because they are
using the upward air-stream of their neighbor, it is because they are able to glide more often."
The study determined that the energy saved by flying in formation may be crucial for larger birds on long
flight. The birds not only fly in squadron formation, they also flap in time with their leader.
Dr. Weimerskirch said the aerodynamic benefit of formation flying has been suspected, but before the study,
were based only on aerodynamic models.
The report, published in the journal Nature, suggests that formation flight was part of the evolution of
birds. Not only does pattern-flying help the birds fly farther, it allows them to communicate with each other on the wing,
the story said.
Thus part of the great migratory mystery of the birds may be somewhat solved for some scientists. But the
study fails to explain the amazing ability of the birds to successfully navigate for thousands of miles, and know just when
the time is right to do so.
Anyone who has studied birds knows there is something very special about these creatures. Their quick movements,
their ever-watchful eyes, their intricate social behaviors are always an amazing thing to watch. For many birds, their songs
involved with mating, sounding an alarm, or just welcoming each day are beautiful to hear.
The birds are among the Earth's oldest residents. They are, in effect, dinosaurs that survived the destruction
of their larger counterparts. Sadly these magnificent creatures probably will not survive the ravages of the planet by human
greed and incompetence. They are dying in large numbers, their latest killer, the West Nile Virus.